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    Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

    This is a discussion on Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations within the Sky Broadband help forums, part of the Sky Broadband help and support category; A member asked for a list of abbreviations commonly used on the forum, and their meaning, so here's a start: ...

    1. #1
      Saturday's Avatar
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      Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      A member asked for a list of abbreviations commonly used on the forum, and their meaning, so here's a start:


      ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A general descriptive term for the technology used to carry high speed data over a normal POTS copper line.

      ADSL1 - A term (incorrectly) used to describe the first incarnation of ADSL. More correctly it should be ANSI T1.413, ITU G.992.1 or even G.DMT depending on the naming convention used.

      ADSL2 - A more advanced, later version of ADSL. Also known as ITU G.992.3/4

      ADSL2+ - A more advanced, later version of ADSL2. Also known as ITU G.992.5

      ADSL Faceplate - A replacement faceplate for a standard NTE5 socket, usually user fitted, which removes the need for individual devices (phones, digiboxes etc) to be separately filtered. Not only will a filtered faceplate avoid the need to have dongle filters in every used socket but the quality of the filtering is generally better, plus it avoids the need to remove the Ring Wire.

      Actual speed - Term used by Ofcom to mean the apparent speed achieved by the customer. See Throughput.

      Headline speed - Term used by Ofcom to mean the potential sync speed sold by the ISP e.g. "up to 16mb/s".

      Capping - a process, manual or automatic (DLM) where the router noise margin is increased and the router sync decreased to improve a noisy connection i.e. make it more stable.

      DSLAM - Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. In very simple terms, equipment at the exchange which separates the telephone and data signals and feeds them into the appropriate networks

      DLM - Dynamic Line Management (note Sky LLU only and not to be confused with Connect DLM). A newly introduced automated process which monitors the line/connection over a period (10-15 days) and then adjusts the connection sync (if needed) to give optimum connection stability. Sky trialled DLM on a selected group of connections with mixed results in mid 2008. DLM has now been reintroduced for all new connections with existing connections going through the process some time in 2009.

      Ethernet - A local area networking technology allowing data to be carried at high speed over wire. There are 3 basic types of wired Ethernet: Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet running at 10, 100 and 1000 Mbits/sec respectively. In the home, Fast Ethernet is most commonly used to connect devices to a LAN. Cat5 and Cat5e Ethernet cable, both suitable for Fast Ethernet, has 8 wires in a specific twist pattern which makes the cable resistant to electrical/radio frequency interference. Fast Ethernet cables are generally terminated with RJ45 plugs/sockets.

      Router cable - sometimes called ADSL cable. The cable which is used to connect the router to the telephone socket. Also referred to as an RJ11 cable, RJ11 being a descriptor of the plug/socket type used.

      Filter - a plug in device or a socket faceplate designed to allow voice and data use at the same time, on the same line without each interfering with each other.

      LAN - Local Area Network. A group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. At a minimum, a LAN can be just a router and a single PC though the technology will support hundreds of devices.

      Line - A catch-all word to cover everything between the exchange equipment and the router i.e. the BT line, home phone wiring, sockets, cables and filters.

      Local - all wiring and attachments your side of the master socket i.e. phones, router, digibox, filters, including telephone extension wiring and sockets.

      Remote - the BT line between the master socket and the exchange equipment. Sometimes called "the last mile".

      Master socket - the first socket in the home after the BT line enters. If fitted in recent years then it is likely to be an NTE5 socket which has a removable faceplate giving access to the test socket. If fitted a long time ago then the master socket is likely to be the hard wired type without a test socket.

      Test Socket - A socket revealed when the faceplate of an NTE5 master socket is removed (the faceplate actually plugs into it), This socket is attached directly to the BT line whereas any extensions are attached to the faceplate. By removing the faceplate and using the test socket, all internal home wiring is removed from the circuit. Also sometimes called the Engineers Socket.

      Noise Margin - The measure of the margin the router has given itself when it initially negotiated with the exchange and subsequently adjusted to the current line noise level. Broadly speaking, this is in effect the difference between the actual SNR and the SNR the router requires to run at a given speed.

      Attenuation - Attenuation is a measure of the loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points. Line attenuation is a measure of the attenuation of the line that the router is attached to.

      Sync - A term used to describe the speed that the router has negotiated with the exchange. Usually measured in kilobits per second (kbps).

      Line errors - A collective term for transmission and connection errors recorded by the router.

      LLU - Local Loop Unbundling. BT was forced by legislation to make its local network (the copper cables that run from customers premises to the telephone exchange) available to other companies. It has become a term used to cover non BT ADSL products.

      POTS - Plain Old Telephony Service. The basic voice line service. Also known as the Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System. For those grammarians reading, POTS is actually a retronym (an acronym constructed after the fact).

      PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network, interchangeable to an extent with POTS. PSTN is the system most telephony providers use to carry and route analogue voice calls over copper wires. It's an aggregation of circuit-switching telephony networks worldwide. Newer technology tends to be digital.

      Ring Wire - The UK, unlike much of the rest of the world uses a third wire in the home telephony wiring to carry the bell ringing signal. Modern telephones don't need this to be able to ring and the wire is often an issue as it acts like an aerial and adds noise into the circuit. Best disconnected or even better fit an ADSL replacement filtered faceplate to filter that type of noise out. Also sometimes called the Bell Wire.

      Stats - A term used to describe a set of connection performance figures recorded by the router

      Simple Stats - A term used to describe a set of attenuation, noise margin and sync figures

      Detailed Stats - A term used to describe all stats available from the router i.e. simple stats plus connection time, line errors, ADSL mode etc

      SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio. Not to be confused with noise margin.

      Throughput - The usable speed you get i.e. the upload and download speeds. Note, sync and throughput are not the same thing, with throughput typically being ~85% of the sync due to ADSL transmission overheads.

      Throttling - A term used to describe restrictions placed on the throughput by the ISP

      Traffic Shaping - a more advanced type of throttling whereby different types of data/traffic are throttled to different degrees. Typically applied to P2P traffic and not web browsing (HTTP).

      TCP & UDP - Standing for Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol respectively, these are two core parts of the Internet Protocol Suite, which is the set of network protocols used for the Internet. TCP controls the communication between two end systems e.g. a web browser and a web server. Besides the Web, other common applications of TCP include e-mail and file transfer.

      Unlike TCP, UDP is a simple transmission model without implicit hand-shaking dialogues for guaranteeing reliability, ordering, or data integrity. UDP is compatible with packet broadcast (sending to all on local network) and multicasting (send to all subscribers). Applications that use UDP include the Domain Name System (DNS), streaming media applications such as IPTV, Voice over IP (VoIP), and many online games.

      Sky Connect only:

      IPstream - BT's name for the product Sky resell as Connect

      RAMBo - Rate Adaptive Management Box. Made up of two components (Max and DLM) which monitors real-time and historic data
      from the DSLAMs.

      Max - Max is part of the RAMBo system, which monitors the line rate of each end user’s line and in the case of IPstream, adjusts the BRAS according. Additionally, for IPstream it also notifies BBCR of changes in the BRAS profile via the downstream line rate parameter.

      DLM - The Dynamic Line Management capability of Rambo. DLM is the other part of the RAMBo system, which analyses the bulk performance statistics from the DSLAMs for each end user’s line. As a result of this analysis, DLM adjusts the DSLAM line profile to "gain the optimum level of rate and stability".

      BRAS Profile - A predetermined throughput rate linked to (and lower than) the sync rate. Or more correctly, the ATM shaping rate.

      BBCR - BroadBand Customer Reporting. A reporting system which takes info from Max etc.

      MSR - Maximum Stable Rate. The maximum rate for the line at an acceptable level of stability. It is a reporting figure only and has no impact on Max or DLM.

      FTR - Fault Threshold Rate. This is the lowest rate a line can run at before an ISP reseller can report a line rate fault into BT Wholesale using the Lower Threshold Breach fault code. The FTR is calculated as 70% of the MSR.


      Please feel free to add any more to the thread or offer corrections to the above.
      Last edited by Saturday; 03-03-09 at 12:47 AM.


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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      DLM - Dynamic Line Management - Skys version for llu
      RAMBo - Rate Adaptive Management Box - BT's version for Ip Stream products ( Connect for us Skyusers )
      Processes which monitor a connection for excessive errors and increase the noise margin to stabilise the connection. The increase in noise margin will decrease the sync speed but will broaden the range of frequencies available to carry the signal thus reducing the errors.
      I think thats right - Saturday will put me right if not
      Last edited by dholdi; 07-01-09 at 09:11 PM.


    4. #3
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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Thanks. Added to the first post.

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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Needs stickying methinks


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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      You need glasses me thinks, says sticky on my screen




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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Quote Originally Posted by NewsreadeR View Post
      You need glasses me thinks, says sticky on my screen
      Mmmmmmm, not so sure it did at 21:31, your right about the glasses tho, stella ones are good

      I stand corrected
      Last edited by dholdi; 07-01-09 at 11:57 PM.


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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Quote Originally Posted by dholdi View Post
      Mmmmmmm, not so sure it did at 21:31,
      It did

      I get the option to sticky a thread when I post it, which is what I did.

      The log shows:

      Date............................Username..........................Action
      19:44, 7th Jan 2009........Saturday..........................Stuck Thread

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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Quote Originally Posted by Saturday View Post
      It did
      Yeah I know, I was within the thread so theres nothing to show its a sticky.
      Ged's already ridiculed me to death, hence the "I stand corrected"
      Last edited by dholdi; 08-01-09 at 02:07 AM.


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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      Where have I seen this before looks better than the first one

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      Re: Common ADSL jargon and abbreviations

      All my own work governor

     

     
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